I bring to your attention a review of the Russian press over the past week (06/30/2014 - 07/06/2014).
1. The most powerful baby boom in history
The Indian population of the southwestern part of North America showed the highest birth rate in the history of mankind. This happened in the period from 500 to 1300 AD, scientists from the United States found out. Anthropologists have made their findings based on a study of thousands of human remains found in the Four Corners region in the southwest United States. According to scientists, the surge in fertility is associated with the so-called Neolithic revolution - the transition from the appropriating culture of hunters to the cultivating culture of farmers - the cultivation of corn.
The birth rate did not decline until the middle of the XIII century, despite the severe drought that hit the region in 1100. By that time, according to scientists, about 40 thousand people lived in the north of the region of the Four Corners. And only since the mid-1250s for 30 years has people disappeared from this area.The reason this happened is still unclear. The authors published their research in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The work of American anthropologists allows to draw conclusions about the importance of regulating overpopulation on the planet and its possible consequences for the economy, as well as the standard of living of people.
The Four Corners Region is located in southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico, northeastern Arizona and southeastern Utah. On the common section of the border of four states is the Monument of the four corners, in honor of which the territory got its name. Indians still make up a significant proportion of the population of the Four Corners.(© "Labor")
2. Why ants run so fast
The secrets of the high speed of movement of ants (in a second they can run up to 20.8 cm, which is 26 times longer than the length of their body), scientists from the Friedrich Schiller University in Germany found out. The experimental results are published in the Society for Experimental Biology. The dexterity and speed of insects has always been surprising, but it has been difficult to understand in detail how to move them because of its small size. A new miniature highly sensitive force-loading platform made of flexible polycarbonate materials helped to solve this problem.Measuring the pressure of the legs of the ants on the platform in micronewtons, it was possible to establish that coordinating three pairs of legs and at the same time it is easy to bend around obstacles with a special sequence of steps called “alternative tripods”: at the same time the middle leg touches the middle leg on one side and the two extreme legs on the other. . It was also clarified how the ants manage their tripod system while running: in order not to lose the rhythm, they simply move their legs faster.(© "Gazeta.ru")
3. Mosquito newspapers
Mosquitoes can be not only annoying, but also dangerous, as well as completely useless. Some scientists believe that the disappearance of these bloodsuckers practically does not affect the ecosystem. However, they can be carriers of deadly diseases. On the occasion of World Health Day in Sri Lanka, the world's first newspaper that repels mosquitoes has been published. The issue was the result of the joint work of the editors of the Mawbima publication and the Leo Burnett advertising agency. The newspaper was printed with paint, in which a repellent was added. The newspaper can be distinguished from others by a stylistic image in which insects are crushed by the letters of the Sinhalese alphabet.The project is aimed primarily at the prevention of Dengue fever, which in 2013 affected 30,000 people. The newspaper was advertised with citronella oil scent — a means widely used as a repellent. It is reported that the first edition of the newspaper was sold before 10 am, reports iscience.ru. Compared to other issues of the publication, the popularity of mosquito-repellent Mawbima increased by 30%, or by 300 thousand readers.(© "Moskovsky Komsomolets")
4. Ostrich gallop
Fashion harnessed ostriches in chariots comes from ancient times. Last week in New Jersey (USA) there took place the arrival of three chariots drawn by miracle birds. It took less than a minute - somewhere in the middle of the distance all three ostriches got rid of the team and rushed forward, leaving the wagons behind.(© "Spark")
5. Green elections
On July 1, an online voting begins, during which every Russian will be able to choose a plant that is traditionally associated with the nature and history of his region. It can be trees, shrubs, and flowers, and grass. Thus, green symbols will become an integral part of the image of the regions of Russia, as well as natural, architectural, historical monuments. And in the fall will begin the creation of the first "Walk of Russia" in Victory Park in Sevastopol.There, as conceived, it will be possible to see the nature of our entire homeland - from Kaliningrad to Sakhalin. In the future, such parks and gardens will appear in other regions of the country.
Voting takes place on the website in the framework of the All-Russian patriotic action "Alley of Russia". It is expected that up to 30 million people will take part in it. Registration during the voting is not required: the system will determine by itself which resident you are from, and then will offer a choice of plants from your region. You can change the region or vote for several subjects at once. Green elections will be held until August 31. In order for the project to succeed, the plants will need careful care, a modern system of watering and maintenance. All tasks will be solved by the organizers of the action together with the authorities of Sevastopol.
The project was initiated by the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation and the Priroda Foundation. The action was also supported by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation. "Alley of Russia" is born by combining the efforts of the authorities, the public and the nationally-oriented business. The project began in the spring when groups of biologists, ecologists, and local historians were formed in each subject of the Russian Federation, who formed lists of candidate plants.As a result, they turned out more than 400 (3-7 in each region), of which 250 trees. On May 9, in Sevastopol, a solemn laying of a memorial stone was held at the site of the future Alley of Russia, which was attended by Sergey Donskoy, Minister of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation, veterans, ecologists, social activists, Black Sea seamen.
The first Alley of Russia will be a symbol of the reunification of Crimea with Russia, a gift to its inhabitants for the courage and determination shown this spring. Victory Park in Sevastopol began to decline with the 90s, its territory has halved to 40 hectares. Thanks to the action, 4 hectares of wasteland will turn into a unique natural complex, into Russia in miniature, where each region will be able not only to plant plants here, but also to leave other symbols of its own region. This will strengthen the emotional ties between the residents of various subjects of the Russian Federation, will be able to show all the wealth of the nature of our Motherland and the unity of Russia. Symbolic plants are important for the formation of the region's identity, environmental education and upbringing, as well as for promoting an investment-attractive image of the territory. Green winners will be used to create online encyclopedias, tutorials,in federal environmental and educational projects.
Winners among plants will be announced on September 1 of this year. Next, a landscape project will be developed so that plants from all regions of Russia will take root in hot and dry Sevastopol. The path of the Alley will be divided into zones, each of which will have its own microclimate, satisfying the needs of various plants: those that love the shade, those that love the sun, and those that grow in water or mountains. Already in May 2015, the Alley of Russia should open for visitors. Her bookmark in Sevastopol is included in the plan of the main activities for the preparation and conduct of the celebration of the 70th anniversary of the Victory. Already Russia Alley is planned as part of a large park complex, which in the future will become an important public space of the city and a center of attraction for tourists.(© "Rossiyskaya Gazeta")
6. How many legs does a kangaroo have?
Moving quickly, the kangaroo jumps on its two hind legs. Front - with this - look like hands pressed to the chest. Or to the bag. But these same "hands" are connected to work - a kangaroo falls on all fours if they are not in a hurry. For example, lazily moving to pinch grass from one place to another.It turns out that in some situations, “jumpers” have two legs, in others - four? By no means. Not four, but five! The fifth leg was discovered by American scientists from the University of Colorado at Boulder, along with colleagues from Simon Fraser’s Canadian University and the Australian University of New South Wales.
Studying the habits of a large red kangaroo, the researchers placed these animals on special platforms equipped with sensors. They measured the force with which the kangaroo rests on the surface, was videotaped as they move. All five test subjects demonstrated the same manner. Namely, bending down and putting forward "hands", the kangaroo rested not only on them, but also on the tail. The legs - the rear - while for some time did not touch the surface. However, if at some moment the kangaroo would not have provided itself with a third point of support - specifically the tail, they would have collapsed into the floor.
“It was a hell of a surprise to watch,” admires Max Donelan (Mach Donelan), one of the research leaders. - Kangaroo is the only animal on Earth that uses its tail like a leg. Fifth leg.
Experimenters have established that kangaroos do not simply lean on their tails, but also repel them. Repeated as powerful as the fore and hind limbs combined.
Animals moving on five legs received the scientific name "pentapedal" (pentapedal).
Scientists have published the results of their work in a serious scientific journal Biology Letters. And thereby automatically became the contenders for the Nobel Prize, the delivery of which is expected in October. Whether or not they will receive it depends on the choice of members of the Schnebel Prize Committee — employees of the comic journal Annals of Improbable Research (Annals of Unbelievable Research), which, in fact, established this amusing award in 1991. They look for nominees, studying serious scientific publications.(© "Komsomolskaya Pravda")
7. Perfect Vodka
British scientists have created the perfect vodka, which you can drink with pleasure and not feel the consequences. Researchers in the UK have come up with special molecules that dilute vodka. And after such an ideal drink, irritation does not occur, and the head is working normally in the morning.
More than 10 years British scientists have been studying the effects of vodka on Russians. The experiment involved 151 thousand men from Barnaul, Biysk and Tomsk.During the study, about eight thousand men died, and many did not even live to retirement age. The results of the experiment showed that those men who drink three or more than 0.5 bottles of vodka a week are at risk of dying, having reached only 55 years old.(© "Arguments of the Week")
8. Freed Raji
An Indian elephant named Rajee has been rescued by activists from half a century of slavery. The owner abused him, kept him in studded shackles. The released Raji was filled with tears of gratitude, reports Russia Today. All these decades, studded shackles badly injured the legs of an elephant. He was forced to sit on his knees, to endure humiliation and beatings from his owner. Raja the elephant's savior is a group of activists of the charitable organization for saving wild animals in the Uttar Pradesh region in India, The Daily Mail newspaper writes. Every day, the animal had to bow to passersby, who threw coins at it as a small reward. The elephant survived, eating only paper, plastic, and the fact that it was thrown by passing tourists. Now, after 50 years of torture, Raji was saved and tears of gratitude flowed from his eyes, writes the British edition.(© Pravda.ru)
9. Roman Coliseum - communal
The Roman Coliseum is a huge amphitheater, which is traditionally associated with bloody spectacular shows and gladiator fights. However, a recent archaeological study of the most famous architectural monument of the Italian capital showed that during the late Middle Ages a huge condominium was located in the Colosseum. Archaeologists from the Third University of Rome and students at the American University in Rome found evidence that ordinary Romans lived in the Coliseum from the 9th century to at least 1349, that is, until the building was seriously damaged by an earthquake and hit its southern part. During the three-week work under some arched entrances leading to the arena, archaeologists discovered terracotta sewer pipes, shards and the base of the XII century wall. "These excavations have shown that the Colosseum was actively used as a dwelling during the late Middle Ages," says the director of the Colosseum, Rosella Ria. In an unusual medieval hostel there were also its stables and workshops, located on the central arena, where the gladiators had once fought.A few square meters inside the Colosseum were leased to monks from the nearby monastery of Santa Maria Nova (now Santa Francesca Romana), who took the architectural monument under their care.
According to medieval archeology professor Riccardo Santaneli Valenzani (Riccardo Santangeli Valenzani), the square was used as a common space. The arena was like a huge courtyard filled with people, animals and goods. There, archaeologists discovered ceramic dishes and a mysterious artifact - a carved statuette of a tiny ivory monkey. Supposedly, she was used as a pawn in a chess game.
As is known, the Colosseum, which became a symbol of the Roman Empire, was built in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian of the Flavian dynasty. The amphitheater is located on the place where there was a pond belonging to the Golden House of Nero. An estimated 100,000 prisoners were brought to Rome as slaves after the war in Judea. Slaves were used for hard labor, such as work in quarries in Tivoli, where travertine was mined, for lifting and transporting heavy stones 30 kilometers from Tivoli to Rome.Teams of professional builders, engineers, artists and decorators performed a number of tasks necessary for the construction of the Colosseum.
This giant structure was consecrated in the year 80 by the son of Vespasian Titus and accommodated up to 50 thousand spectators. The discovery was accompanied by a festival that lasted 100 days: during it there were gladiator fights, battles with wild animals and sea battles for which the arena was flooded.
Over the centuries of its existence, the Colosseum experienced three major earthquakes and one catastrophic fire. After the emperor Honorius banned bloody gladiator fights in 404, the building lost its glory and gradually began to disintegrate. It was known that the medieval Romans used it as a garbage dump and stone quarry during the construction of buildings such as St. Peter’s Cathedral. However, recent excavations have shown that the history of the most visited monument in Italy (about 6 million visitors come to it annually) is still not fully understood. At the moment the object is being cleaned and restored. It is expected that the restoration work will be completed in March 2016.(© "Vesti.ru")
10. Ban on Choco Pie
The authorities of North Korea have banned putting Choco Pie cookies into daily lunch sets of employees of the Kaeson industrial complex with South Korea, reports The Washington Post. In Pyongyang, it was considered that cookies personify the Western way of life. The decisive role was also played by the fact that Choco Pie became a popular product on the country's black market.
Workers who received scarce snacks Choco Pie in the composition of the daily ration, began to sell them to anyone at speculative prices. The cost of one cookie reached 700 won ($ 0.7) with an average salary of a North Korean worker three thousand won (three dollars). It was also reported that the monthly shadow turnover of delicacies amounted to two and a half million pieces (the methodology for obtaining such statistical data is not specified).
Replace the dessert originally from South Korea decided local chocolate. Instant noodles and sausages, also part of the daily ration of workers, were not subject to sanctions. The Kaeson industrial complex was founded by the DPRK and South Korea in 2005. There are representative offices of 120 South Korean companies. Their activities provide jobs for many DPRK citizens.The sale of products made in Kaesong is one of the main sources of currency for North Korea.